1. Investing in Health
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Editors/Authors: Dean T. Jamison
Disease / Condition
Maternal & Neonatal Conditions
Sexually Transmitted Infections
The 20th century differed markedly from previous history with its rapid economic growth, health improvements, and plummeting mortality rates. Improved health has contributed significantly to economic welfare. These trends are likely to continue, and even those countries with limited resources can expect major improvements from cost–effective interventions. The pace at which knowledge of effective health interventions is diffused within a country, more than the level of income, will determine the pace of improvement.
Four critical challenges face developing countries today: high levels and rapid growth of noncommunicable diseases; the unchecked HIV/AIDS pandemic; the possibility of a successor to the influenza pandemic of 1918; and the persistence of high but preventable levels of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, diarrhea, and pneumonia for which malnutrition is a critical risk factor.
New findings highlight types of interventions and resources needed to reduce the global burden of disease and injury. For example, care during a child's first 28 days of life is crucial to reduce child mortality, because 50 percent of child deaths worldwide occur during this period, yet relatively little attention has been paid to this population group. Cardiovascular disease is shown to create an unexpectedly high burden in developing countries. Lifelong management of risk factors in individuals at risk for stroke or heart attack is cost–effective and would benefit millions.
Based on successful interventions in the past half–century, it is concluded that provider incentives and provider experience matter. Development assistance for health from high–income countries would be more effectively used if a larger share were devoted to research and development. The generation and diffusion of new knowledge and products are essential to continued progress.
Click on the links below to read the full text.
- The 20th Century Takeoff in Human Health
- The Economic Benefits of Better Health
- Why Has Mortality Declined at Such Different Rates in Different Countries?
- Child Health
- Noncommunicable Disease and Injury
- Health System Development and Finance
- Research and Development
- Development Assistance for Health
- Annex 1.A: The Burden of Disease in 2001
- 1.1 Trends in Maximum Female Life Expectancy, 1600-2000
- 1.2 Distribution of Deaths by Cause in Chile, 1909 and 1999
- 1.3 Changes in GDP and Full Income in Kenya, 1960-2000
- 1.4 Rate of Progress in Reducing Under-Five Mortality, 1960-2000: China, India, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa
- 1.5 Under-Five Deaths from AIDS, Malaria, and Other Causes, per Thousand Births, 1990 and 2001, Sub-Saharan Africa
- 1.6 Increase in Tobacco-related Deaths as Populations Age
- 1.7 Equity Implications of Providing Universal Coverage for Immunization and Attended Delivery in the Philippines, 1998
- 1.1 Disease Control Priorities
- 1.2 The Multisectoral Determinants of Health
- 1.3 Tangible Approaches to Improving Quality of Care
- 1.4 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in This Volume
- 1.1 Levels and Changes in Life Expectancy, 1960-2002, by World Bank Region
- 1.2 Health Expenditures by Country Income Level, Public and Total, 2001
- 1.3 How Much Health Will a Million Dollars Buy?
- 1.A1 Causes of Deaths in Low- and Middle-Income and High-Income Countries and the World, 2001 (percent)
- 1.A2 The Burden of Disease in Low- and Middle-Income and High-Income Countries and the World, 2001 (percent)