46. Tobacco Addiction
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Editors/Authors: Prabhat Jha, Frank J. Chaloupka, James Moore, Vendhan Gajalakshmi, Prakash C. Gupta, Richard Peck, Samira Asma, and Witold Zatonski
Cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco use impose a large and growing global public health burden, causing nearly 5 million deaths annually. Based on current smoking patterns, annual tobacco deaths will rise to 10 million by 2030.
Most of the 1 billion tobacco deaths expected in the 21st century will occur in low–income countries. By contrast, the 20th century saw 100 million tobacco deaths, most of them in Western countries and the former socialist economies. Hundreds of millions of such deaths could be avoided if effective interventions were widely applied.
Studies from high–, low–, and middle–income countries show that tobacco use can be reduced through interventions such as tobacco tax increases, information about health risks, restrictions on smoking in public and workplaces, bans on advertising and promotion, and increased access to cessation therapies.
For reasons that have not been adequately studied, the use of policy interventions such as sales taxes to reduce tobacco use is uneven around the globe. The most obvious constraint to tobacco control comes from the tobacco industry, which is well organized and well funded. But earmarking tobacco taxes for uses that the public will support can be a key political tool for effecting change. The World Health Organization's 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control may also encourage adopting countries to implement appropriate measures.
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- Smoking Trends
- Health Consequences of Smoking
- Rationale for Government Intervention
- Interventions to Reduce Demand for Tobacco
- Interventions to Reduce the Supply of Tobacco
- Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Tobacco-Control Interventions
- Comprehensive Tobacco-Control Programs
- Constraints to Effective Tobacco-Control Policies
- 46.1 Changes in Lung Cancer Mortality at Age 35 to 44 in the United Kingdom and France, 1950-99
- 46.2 Tobacco Deaths in the Next 50 Years under Current Smoking Patterns
- 46.3 Stopping Works: Cumulative Risk of Lung Cancer Mortality in U.K. Males, 1990 rates
- 46.4 Average Cigarette Price, Tax, and Percentage of Tax Share per Pack, by Income Group, 1996
- 46.5 Potential Effect of Tax Increases, NRT, and Non-Price Interventions on Tobacco Mortality, 2000-50
- 46.1 Estimated Smoking Prevalence (by Gender) and Number of Smokers, 15 Years of Age and Older, 2000
- 46.2 Tobacco Mortality and Total DALYs by Gender, 2000 (thousands)
- 46.3 Reductions in Future Tobacco Deaths among Smokers Alive in 2000 from Price Increases of 10 Percent, 33 Percent, 50 Percent, and 70 Percent by World Bank Region
- 46.4 Reductions in Future Tobacco Deaths among Smokers Alive in 2000 from Price Increases of 33 Percent, Increased NRT Use, and a Package of Non-Price Measures by World Bank Region
- 46.5 Range of Cost-Effectiveness Values for Price Increase, NRT, and Non-Price Interventions, 2000 (2002 U.S. dollars per DALY saved)
- 46.6 Estimated Cost of Price Intervention and NRT Programs (2002 U.S. dollars)